The Genoese fortress is a historical citadel of Crimea. On the top of the mountain, near the town of Sudak, there is a Genoese fortress. In the middle ages, it served as a stronghold for colonizers of the Northern black sea region.
The Genoese fortress was built in the 14th-15th century to protect the city of Surozh. Arab merchants in his records called it the pike. Previously, on the site of the fortress there were fortifications “Sugdei”, built in 212 (according to a Greek manuscript of the 13th century). Archaeologists are still looking for confirmation of this legend.
One of the oldest fortresses in Crimea – Genoese, built on the Fortress hill (157m high). This mountain is a remnant of an ancient fossilized reef. From the South and East it ends in steep walls in the sea. This made it possible to create an almost impregnable fortification with an area of 30 hectares.
The defence of the fortress was carried out using two lines. The external circuit (the castle of St. (According to Genoese sources) consisted of fourteen towers connected by walls. The inner loop (the castle of St. Elijah), called-the citadel, consisted of four towers.
The height of the towers reached 15 meters, the walls connecting them had a height of 6 to 8 meters and a thickness of 1.5-2 meters. Interestingly, the towers were named after the consuls under whom they were built.
In Genoese times, the city consisted of four districts. The citadel housed the Consul and his assistants. The main part of the city was located between the inner and outer contour. The port district and the merchant-craft district were located outside the city walls.
For many centuries, the fortress, except for the Genoese, owned: Khazars, Byzantines, Polovtsians (11-12 centuries), Golden Horde and Turks (15-18 centuries). Although it was captured once, thanks to a multi-day siege by Turkish troops.
In the course of numerous wars, the Genoese fortress was partially destroyed and turned into ruins. Only in the 20s of the 20th century, the fortress acquired the status of a historical monument. Now the Sudak fortress Museum-reserve is organized on the territory of the fortress. Everyone can visit this historical monument, walk along the fortress walls and dive into the past for hundreds of years.
To date, 12 towers of the 14 outer contour have been well preserved. Between the fortifications, you can see the remains of water pipes and cultural buildings. However, there is a disputed opinion about whether these buildings belong to the period of Genoese rule.
The Genoese fortress has preserved the spirit of the middle ages and plunges visitors into a mystical world full of riddles and mysteries. From the walls of the fortress, you can see the silhouettes of approaching ships and feel like a guard of an impregnable Fort. The views are fascinating and impressive. This is where many photographers come to take spectacular pictures. Come and you.
Author: Alexander Smagin
Location : Crimea