One of the largest cities in Kazakhstan is Shymkent. This ancient city is located in the south of the country in the Sairam oasis and is one of the centers of this region. Shymkent traces its history back to the XII century, but archaeologists say that there was a settlement back in antiquity. Throughout history, the city has been a victim of campaigns and conquests. In the XIII century it was captured by Genghis Khan, and a century later by Timur. Two centuries later Shymkent became part of the Kazakh Khanate, and in subsequent years it became the object of the claims of the Dzungarian rulers. For hundreds of years, the local population suffered from countless internecine wars, but no matter what, agriculture, gardening and crafts developed in the region. On the threshold of the XVIII-XIX centuries Shymkent was a military camp, as a serious struggle between the Bukhara and Kokand khanates unfolded for it. And again, the confrontation led to numerous fights and uprisings. A new stage in the history of the city is the accession of Shymkent to Russia. In 1864, the troops of General M.G. Chernyaev took the city. It was a very daring assault, the attacking troops passed through the water supply to the fortress. The defenders, stunned by the sudden appearance of the Russians, laid down their arms almost without resistance. In 1914, the city was renamed Chernyaev, but 10 years later Shymkent was returned to its historical name. The richest information about the history of the settlement is provided by the excavations of a medieval fortress. Various samples of weapons and equipment, material culture of different epochs and peoples give an idea of the life of Shymkent residents. The city is considered one of the tourist centers, it is from here that many tourist routes in Southern Kazakhstan begin.